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Cover Page      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration Page-       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Approval Page –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication Page          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgements    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract –        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii




  • Background to the Study – –           –           –           –           –           –           1
  • Statement of the Problem – –           –           –           –           –           –           4
  • Purpose of the Study – –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Research Questions – –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Hypothesis – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6
  • Significance of the Study – – –           –           –           –           –           6
  • Scope/Delimitation of the Study – –           –           –           –           –           7
  • Operational Definition of Terms – –           –           –           –           –           7




2.1 The Concept of Reading   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.2 Reading Comprehension               –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.3 Kinds of Reading  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.4 Levels of Reading Comprehension           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.5 Importance of Reading     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

2.6 Six Strategies to Teaching Students Reading Comprehension Text        –           21

2.7 SQ3R Technique   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.8 Assessing Reading Comprehension          –           –           –           –           –           28




3.1 Research Design   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           30

3.2 Population and Sample     –           –           –           –                       –           –           30

Sample            –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           –           31

3.3. Sampling Technique        –           –           –           –                       –           –           31

3.4. Instrument for Data Collection –              –           –           –           –                       31

3.4.1 Description of Instrument          –           –           –           –                       –           31

3.4.2 Procedure for instrument development             –           –           –           –           32

3.5. Validity and Reliability of Instrument    –           –           –           –           –           32

3.6. Procedure for Data Collection     –           –           –           –                       –           33

3.7. Method of Data Analysis             –           –           –           –                       –           33




4.1. Results     –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           –           35

4.1 Pre-test Performance of the Students       –           –           –           –                       35

4.2 Post-test Performances of the Students in the Government College Pankshin

       and Good Shepherd College        –           –           –           –           –                       37

4.3 Summary of the Tables     –           –           –           –                       –           –           40

4.4 Discussion of Findings     –           –           –           –                       –           –           40




5.0 Introduction          –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           42

5.1 Summary of Findings       –           –           –           –                       –           –           42

5.2 Conclusion            –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           42

5.3 Recommendations            –           –           –           –                       –           –           43

5.4 Suggestions for Further Study      –           –           –           –                       –           44

References      –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           45

Appendixes     –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           49


This research was carried out to examine the effects of using SQ3Rs as a method of instruction in the teaching and learning of reading comprehension in secondary schools in Pankshin. The study employed quasi-experimental research design. The population of this study consisted of all SS 2 students in five selected Senior Secondary Schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. The sample size of this research work was sixty students–twelve (12) from each of the five selected schools. The simple random technique was used to select the sample size. ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ were written on pieces of paper to distinguish between the control and experimental groups. The instrument used in collecting data for this study was test. The research was conducted for one week, and the lesson ran daily for 40 minutes in of the selected schools. The lesson was on reading comprehension passage. Before the treatment, a pretest was administered, and after the treatment, a post-test was administered in all schools. The post-test was also on reading comprehension just like the pre-test. The method of data analysis was the mean score and the t-test The findings of the study indicated that there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught reading comprehension using SQ3Rs method because the results of the study showed that students who were taught reading comprehension using SQ3Rs method performed better than when they were not exposed to the method. The mean score of the pre-test stood at 4.50, while their mean score in the post-test was 10.25 showing a remarkable progress. In the light of the findings, the following recommendations were offered: the use of SQ3Rs should be made an integral part of teacher education programme in the teacher training colleges, teachers of English should adopt SQ3Rs in teaching and learning of English reading comprehension, curriculum planners should design curriculum to accommodate the SQ3Rs method in the secondary school system.



  • Background to the Study

Over the years, the rate of failure of students in examinations like WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, etc has been a concern to educators and stakeholders in education enterprise. The WAEC Chief Examiner report from 2009-2015 further confirmed that there is poor performance of students in English which is seen more in the composition writing aspect of the examinations over the years. The examiner pointed out some of the errors to include errors of grammar, punctuation, tenses and spellings that made them to lose whole marks. This problem can be ascribed to lack of consistent practice in reading and writing as well as inadequate teaching methods employed by teachers in the secondary schools (Garus, 2017).

Al Emami (2009) stated that reading comprehension is a complex task that depends on many different automatic and strategic cognitive processes. She also appended that reading fluency, the ability to read with speed and proper expression, is a critical skill for comprehension. It can be noticed the high status of reading occupies and captures an important position among the other learning skills. Pardo (2004) defined comprehension as “a process in which readers construct meaning by interacting with text through the combination of prior knowledge and previous experience, information in the text, and the stance the reader takes in relationship to the text ” (p. 272).

The reading ability is the most important component of English performance, particularly in an academic setting (Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 2003). To promote students’ reading competence, successful students or readers should apply several reading strategies, such as recognizing text structure, posing questions, reflecting on behaviour or the process, skimming, scanning, semantic mapping , monitoring comprehension, organizing graphs, taking notes, and rereading (Sung, Chang, & Huang,2008; Yang, 2006).

Wikipedia (2019) opined that the term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area(s) and school mission statement.

            An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning. Underlying any language teaching approach is a theoretical view of what language is, and of how it can be learnt. An approach therefore, gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn. Learners in the modern language classroom often learn through techniques drawn from a variety of methods/approaches in what has been labelled an ‘eclectic approach’. Teachers select techniques from various approaches according to the different needs of their learners. Most course books mix methods and techniques in this way.

It is important to note that varieties of language teaching methods exist. These include grammar translation method, Gouini series, the direct method, oral approach, situational situation, etc. However, over the years, researchers and linguists, in a quest for an adequate and comprehensive method of teaching language, have come terms with the fact that other approaches have not been given due consideration. It is on this background that this study is set to evaluate the effect of using SQ3Rs in the teaching of reading comprehension to learners in secondary schools.

Pearson and Gallagher (2003) determined that proficient readers incorporate strategies to aid their comprehension. Strategies help readers to interact with their texts and better interpret its meaning. Forgan and Mangrum (2009) added, “If you want your students to read textual materials effectively and efficiently, you must teach the appropriate study skills and study strategies” (p. 18). Many researchers pointed out that research on comprehension strategies took on greater importance. They stated that comprehension strategies help the learners to understand both spoken and written passages more effectively (Lucky, 2018).

Eze (2016) stated that several reading comprehension strategies provide clear guidelines to help students learn and practice techniques that imitate the behaviours of highly proficient readers such as SQ3R, 3R, and KWL strategies.

Robinson (1961, p.1) in Eze (2016) claimed that, contrary to the opinion of many students, the way to achieve effective study is not by more study or more determined concentration, but by changing the quality of the study method. Acting on his belief that students needed an effective study skill method, Robinson (1961) created the SQ3R reading strategies.

SQ3R is a meaningful reading method in which students practice different reading strategies (Huber, 2004). The SQ3R process is complex, and the knowledge constructed during this process is comprehensive and varied. Novice and intermediate learners must expend more cognitive and behavioral effort in operating and managing the process and knowledge before they become experienced and superior. Their effort may impede reading comprehension when learners are unfamiliar with this method.

SQ3R is an effective reading strategy; it remains the most popular method among teachers. SQ3R provides useful examples for poor readers to improve, and gives meaning and purpose to reading. SQ3R techniques, such as skimming, questioning and summarizing, have also been proven to enhance reading comprehension and may foster in students a familiarity with such techniques.

According to Eze (2016), Robinson cautioned that this is a process that needs to be practiced before it can be perfected. However, once the reader has worked through outstanding issues, the reader should be able to read at a quicker pace, identify the important ideas, and retain information.

            In the light of the above, this study seeks to examine the effects of using SQ3R in teaching reading comprehension in selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.

  • Statement of the Problem

Over the years, researchers and educational stakeholders have beamed their search light on the causes of poor performance of students in English language at the junior and senior secondary school levels. Most of the time, the blame has been pushed to the curriculum planners, the government, parents, students and other lingering factors. The researcher has discovered that these problems boil down to teaching methods and strategies adopted by teachers and language skill in question.

To this extent, the researcher has decided to determine the effects of using the SQ3R method on students’ performances in reading comprehension in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using SQ3Rs as a method of instruction in the teaching and learning of reading comprehension in secondary schools.

The specific objectives of the study include the following:

  1. To expose students to SQ3R method of teaching reading comprehension
  2. To identify whether there is difference in performance between those exposed to SQ3Rs as a method of teaching and those who are not.
  • To find out whether SQ3R approach enhances better performance of students in reading comprehension.
    • Research Questions
  1. To what extent are students exposed to SQ3Rs method of teaching?
  2. What is the difference in performance between students exposed to SQ3Rs method and those who are not?
  • How does SQ3Rs approach enhance the performance of students in reading comprehension?


  • Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant difference in the performance of students before and after they were exposed to SQ3R approach.

  • Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized. Apart from contributing to existing knowledge, the study will be of benefit to the curriculum planners, the government, the teachers and the students as well.

            The curriculum planners will benefit in this study in such a way that they will structure learning experiences and incorporate relevant teaching methods such as SQ3Rs that will aid in the teaching and learning of reading comprehension in secondary schools.

            To the teachers, they will be better informed on the importance of using certain approaches like the SQ3R in teaching of reading comprehension. Therefore, they will come to terms with the fact that using a suitable teaching method enhances students’ performance in English.

            Government will benefit from this study in the sense that they will know the areas in which they are lacking. Therefore, they will organize seminars and workshops in order to enhance teachers’ awareness and knowledge in reading comprehension, especially SQ3R.

            Also, students who are the centre of this research will benefit most. This is because they will be taught with the right teaching method which will enhance their performance in reading comprehension, especially those who are preparing for their Senior Secondary School Examinations.

  • Scope/Delimitation of the Study

Every research has an area of coverage. This study seeks to find out the effects of using the SQ3R method on students’ performances in reading comprehension in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau. Though the study is limited to selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area, the findings might be generic. This is to say that the findings can be generalized to other parts of the state and the country at large.

  • Operational Definition of Terms

Reading: This is the ability to interpret a written or printed works and to make meaning out of them. It is also the process of identifying and understanding the meaning of the characters and words in written or printed materials.

Comprehension Passage: This is an exercise consisting of a set of questions on a short text (passage) designed to test students’ understanding.

Students: Learners who are in a class and are willing to learn.

Effects: A change in the state of being which is as a result of a phenomenon.

SQ3R: It is an abbreviation to help one remember the steps and to make reference to it simpler. The acronym SQ3R stands for the following:

S          – survey

Q         – question

R-1      – read

R-2      – recite or recall

R3       – review

Approach: An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn.

Methods: An established, habitual, logical, or prescribed practice or systematic process of achieving certain ends with accuracy and efficiency,

Strategy: Strategy is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the “art of the general,” which included several subsets of skills including tactics.

Performance: Performance is completion of a task with application of knowledge, skills and abilities.



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